Foreign Relations of the United States : 1918 The Conclusion of the Peace of Brest Litovsk
The Consul General at Moscow (Summers) to the Secretary of State

File No. 763.72119/1626

The Consul General at Moscow (Summers) to the Secretary of State


MOSCOW, April 22, 1918.

[Received April 29, 3.05 a.m.]

399. Treaty supplementing the treaty of peace concluded on the 3d of March, 1918, at Brest Litovsk between the Russian Republic on the one part and Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire on the other part.


Art 1 Art 2 Art 3 Art 4 Art 5 Art 6 Art 7 Art 8
Art 9 Art 10 Art 11 Art 12 Art 13 Art 14 Art 15

Provision having been made by certain articles of the joint treaty of peace signed on this day at Brest Litovsk by the Russian Republic on the one part and the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria on tile other part for the conclusion of special arrangements between the contracting states concerned, the plenipotentiaries of the Russian Republic, viz.:

Mr G. I. Sokolnikov, member of the Central Executive Committee of the Council of Soldiers, Workmen and Farmers;

Mr. G. I. Petrovski, Commissioner of the People for Home Affairs;

Mr. G. V. Chicherin, Commissioner of the People for Foreign Affairs;

Mr I. M. Rarakhan, member of the Central Executive Committee of the Council of Soldiers, Workmen and Farmers;

And the plenipotentiaries of the Ottoman Empire, viz.:

His Highness Ibrahim Hakky Pasha, former Grand Vizier, Senator, Ambassador of His Imperial Majesty the Sultan at Berlin;

His Excellency Zeki Pasha, General of Cavalry, and Aide-de-Camp to His Imperial Majesty the Sultan;

Have agreed to regulate by a supplementary treaty all matters relating thereto and drawn up to that effect the following provisions:


The following provisions have been made to regulate the details of execution and the delivery of occupied territory dealt with in paragraph 2 of Article 4 of the joint treaty of peace.

1. To that end the Russian Republic undertakes to withdraw to the other side of the boundary line as it was before the war all its forces now in the said provinces as well as all its officers both civil and military in a period of from six to eight weeks from the signature of the present treaty.

2. The commanders in chief of the Russian and Turkish armies operating on the Asiatic front shall determine in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 the modus of evacuation and withdrawal of the Russian troops beyond the frontier, as also the means apt to insure its safety.

3. At the time of the evacuation of the occupied territory Russia will insure safety therein until it is again occupied by Ottoman troops. It shall take appropriate measures to prevent acts of vengeance, plunder, crimes or other trespasses from being committed; to conserve intact and preserve from destruction the structures and buildings in the said territory inclusive of military establishments as well as all furniture and equipment. The army commanders of the contracting parties will settle those important points on the spot.

It is understood that the portable and other railroads laid in the said territory as also the rolling stock and bridges shall be allowed to stand as they are so as to make the revictualing of the population easier. The same will apply to military establishments.

4. The Russian Republic will use one division to guard the frontier along a distance of about five hundred kilometers or more, will demobilize all the remainder of the army and carry it to the interior of the country.

5. The Russian Republic undertakes to demobilize and dissolve the Armenian bands whether of Russian or Turkish nationality now in the Russian and Ottoman occupied provinces and entirely to disband them.

6. The two contracting parties will conclude an agreement for the settlement of the revictualing of the inhabitants of the said provinces until normal conditions are restored.

7. The Russian Republic shall not concentrate troops along the border or in Caucasia exceeding one division, not even for drills, until general peace is established.

If it should become necessary to resort to such a concentration for reasons of public safety in the interior, a previous notice must be given to the powers of the Quadruple Alliance.

On the other hand, Turkey is compelled by the necessity of carrying on the war against its other adversaries to keep its army on a war footing.


Within three months after the ratification of the present treaty two Turkish-Russian joint commissioners shall be appointed by the contracting parties; one of these will be charged with the duty of reestablishing the dividing line between Turkey and Russia from the point where the three boundaries, Turkish, Russian and Persian, meet to the point where the line strikes the boundary of the three sanjaks of Kars, and Datum. Along that stretch the boundary line as it was before the war will be followed; the monuments that may have been destroyed in the course of war operations shall be rebuilt and repaired in accordance with the maps and protocols of the boundary commission of 1880.

The second commission will mark the boundary between Russia and the three sanjaks to be evacuated in accordance with paragraph 3 of Article 4 of the joint treaty of peace. The frontier shall be restored there as it existed before the Turkish-Russian war of 1877 and 1878.


The inhabitants and communes in the territory of either contracting party, holding property and usufruct rights on real property lying on the other side of the border, will enjoy, operate or lease, manage or convey such property by themselves or by proxy

The said inhabitants or representatives of the said communes win be allowed freely to cross the boundary line upon presentation of passes issued to them by the proper authorities of their domicile and authenticated by those of the other party.

liabilities in crossing the line free of duty will be granted to local agricultural products, farming implements, foodstuffs, fertilizers, seed, building material and cattle for farm work, carried by the said inhabitants or representatives of communes.

The contracting parties reserve for a future special arrangement the settl*ment of the details of the provisions set forth in the foregoing two paragraphs.


The contracting parties undertake to grant, on and after the ratification of the present treaty, exequaturs to the consuls general, consuls and vice consuls of career of either party in all ports, cities or other places in the territory of the other, except those where objection may be seen to recognizing such officers, provided the same exception applies to all foreign powers.

With regard to the privileges, powers and duties of the said officers during the transitory period referred to in Article 6, the same rules shall, on condition of reciprocity, apply to them as apply to like officers of the most-favored nation.


Each contracting party undertakes to pay an indemnity for all the damages and losses caused during the war within the territories by its agents or people to the consular buildings and furniture as well as to the consular officers and employees of the other party.


All the treaties, undertakings or other instruments and agreements previously existing between the contracting parties having been made null and void, pro facto, by the very occurrence of the war, the Imperial Ottoman Government and the Government of the Russian Republic undertake to conclude a consular convention and such other instruments as they may deem necessary for the adjustment of their juridical relations. These instruments shall be perfected within the time set by Appendix 5 to the joint treaty of peace for the conclusion of a treaty of commerce and navigation. The transitory period in which to apply the provisions in the last paragraph of Article 4, as also the right of denouncement granted to the parties, will be the same as those stated in the said appendix.


The post and telegraph relations between the Ottoman Empire and Russia will be reestablished immediately upon the ratification of the present treaty in accordance with the postal and telegraphic conventions, arrangements and regulations of the international union.


In pursuance of the principle laid down in Article 7 of the joint treaty of peace the two contracting parties declare that they consider to be null and void all previous international instruments intended to create spheres of influence and exclusive interests in Persia. The two Governments will withdraw their troops from the Persian territory. To that end they shall communicate with the Government of that country about the details of the evacuation and the measures apt also to insure for the political independence and territorial integrity of that country the respect of the several states.


All laws, regulations and ordinances enforced in the territory of one of the contracting parties against the citizens or subjects of the other party by reason of the state of war existing in their country and intended to change these personal rights in any way (war laws) become inoperative after the ratification of the joint treaty of peace.

The juristic persons and corporations recognized by the local laws of one of the parties as belonging to the nationality of the other party shall be considered in this respect as citizens or subjects of the said other party.


All debts due to private or juristic persons or corporations, citizens or subjects of one of the parties within the territory of the other party are restored to their ante bellum status.

The contracting parties agree to apply to the debts due to their respective citizens or subjects the provisions found in Sections 2 and 3 of Article 2 (Chapter 3) of the German supplementary treaty signed at Brest Litovsk on March 3, 1918.

The citizens or subjects of either party shall in addition enjoy the greater facilities which each of the parties may see fit to adopt in behalf of its own nationals who may have been unable, on account of the war events, to secure in good time the safeguard of their rights


Russian subjects of the Moslem faith will be allowed to emigrate to Turkey after disposing of their property and to carry their patrimony with them.


Persons whose rights have been invaded under the war laws mentioned in Article 8, will as far as possible be reinstated in the said rights. After ratification of the present treaty both sides shall simultaneously return the property seized under the said laws. In addition, each party undertakes simultaneously to pay indemnity for the damage caused to the subjects of the other party in their lives or health as a result of the measures taken against them and in their property as a result of liquidation, seizure, requisition or forcible disposition of their real and personal estates. The mode of appraising the losses sustained by reason of the circumstances above enumerated and all matters connected therewith as also the procedure to be followed in the premises shall be settled by the contracting parties under the same conditions as those determined by Articles 2, 3 and 4 (Chapter 4) of the supplementary German-Russian treaty of March 3, 1918.


Prisoners of war who are invalid or unfit for military service shall be immediately sent home. The other prisoners of war and all other persons arrested as a measure of military or public order shall be exchanged as soon as possible after the signature of the present treaty; the exchange will be effected through special commissioners appointed by both parties.

The transportation of prisoners of war to a port of departure or to the frontier will be at the expense of the captor state. Civilian prisoners will be immediately released. The contracting party which arrested or interned them shall bear the cost of transportation from the place where they are held or interned to the residence from which they were taken


Each contracting party will apply to the prisoners of war and interned civilians in its territory, and also to the citizens or subjects of the other party, the amnesty clauses inserted in Article 1 (Chapter 7) of the supplementary German-Russian treaty signed at Brest Litovsk on March 3, 1918.


The present supplementary treaty shall go into effect, in so far as it is not otherwise provided, at the same time as the joint treaty of peace signed at Brest Litovsk on March 3, 1918.

It will be ratified and the ratifications will be exchanged at Berlin at the same time as those of the above-mentioned joint treaty.

In faith whereof the plenipotentiaries have signed the present supplementary treaty and affixed their seals thereto.

Done in duplicate, at Brest Litovsk, March 3,1918.

127 Wall Street, New Haven, CT 06511.