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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America, Australia, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Canada, Czechoslovakia, India, New Zealand, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the Union of South Africa, as the States which are at war with Roumania and actively waged war against the European enemy states with substantial military forces, hereinafter referred to as "the Allied and Associated Powers", of the one part, and Roumania, of the other part;
Whereas Roumania, having become an ally of Hitlerite Germany and having participated on her side in the war against the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and other United Nations, bears her share of responsibility for this war;
Whereas, however, Roumania, on August 24, 1944, entirely ceased military operations against the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, withdrew from the war against the United Nations, broke off relations with Germany and her satellites and having concluded on September 12, 1944, an Armistice with the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, acting in the interests of all the United Nations, took an active part in the war against Germany; and
Whereas the Allied and Associated Powers and Roumania are desirous of concluding a treaty of peace, which, conforming to the principles of justice, will settle questions still outstanding as a result of the events herein-before recited and form the basis of friendly relations between them, thereby enabling the Allied and Associated Powers to support Roumania's application to become a member of the United Nations and also to adhere to any Convention concluded under the auspices of the United Nations;
Have therefore agreed to declare the cessation of the state of war and for this purpose to conclude the present Treaty of Peace, and have accordingly appointed the undersigned Plenipotentiaries who, after presentation of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the following provisions:
The frontiers of Roumania, shown on the map annexed to the present Treaty (Annex I), shall be those which existed on January 1, 1941, with the exception of the Roumanian-Hungarian frontier, which is defined in Article 2 of the present Treaty.
The Soviet-Roumanian frontier is thus fixed in accordance with the Soviet-Roumanian Agreement of June 28, 1940, and the Soviet-Czechoslovak Agreement of June 29, 1945.
The decisions of the Vienna Award of August 30, 1940, are declared null and void. The frontier between Roumania and Hungary as it existed on January 1, 1938, is hereby restored.
1. Roumania shall take all measures necessary to secure to all persons under Roumanian jurisdiction, without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion, the enjoyment of human rights and of the fundamental freedoms, including freedom of expression, of press and publication, of religious worship, of political opinion and of public meeting.
2. Roumania further undertakes that the laws in force in Roumania shall not, either in their content or in their application, discriminate or entail any discrimination between persons of Roumanian nationality on the ground of their race, sex, language or religion, whether in reference to their persons, property, business, professional or financial interests, status, political or civil rights or any other matter.
Roumania, which in accordance with the Armistice Agreement has taken measures to set free, irrespective of citizenship and nationality, all persons held in confinement on account of their activities in favour of, or because of their sympathies with, the United Nations or because of their racial origin, and to repeal discriminatory legislation and restrictions imposed thereunder, shall complete these measures and shall in future not take any measures or enact any laws which would be incompatible with the purposes set forth in this Article.
Roumania, which in accordance with the Armistice Agreement has taken measures for dissolving all organizations of a Fascist type on Roumanian territory, whether political, military or para-military, as well as other organizations conducting propaganda hostile to the Soviet Union or to any of the other United Nations, shall not permit in future the existence and activities of organizations of that nature which have as their aim denial to the people of their democratic rights
1. Roumania shall take all necessary steps to ensure the apprehenisve and surrender for trial of:
(a) Persons accused of having committed, ordered or abetted war crimes and crimes against peace or humanity;
(b) Nationals of any Allied or Associated Power accused of having violated their national law by treason or collaboration with the enemy during the war.
2. At the request of the United Nations Government concerned, Roumania shall likewise make available as witnesses persons within its jurisdiction, whose evidence is required for the trial of the persons referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.
3. Any disagreement concerning the application of the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article shall be referred by any of the Governments concerned to the Heads of the Diplomatic Missions in Bucharest of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, who will reach agreement with regard to the difficulty.
Roumania undertakes to recognize the full force of the Treaties of Peace with Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary and Finland and other agreements or arrangements which have been or will be reached by the Allied and Associated Powers in respect of Austria, Germany and Japan for the restoration of peace.
The state of war between Roumania and Hungary shall terminate upon the coming into force both of the present Treaty of Peace and the Treaty of Peace between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America, Australia, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Canada, Czechoslovakia, India, New Zealand, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Union of South Africa and the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, of the one part, and Hungary of the other part.
Roumania undertakes to accept any arrangements which have been or may be agreed for the liquidation of the League of Nations and the Permanent Court of International Justice.
1. Each Allied or Associated Power will notify Roumania, within a period of six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, which of its pre-war bilateral treaties with Roumania it desires to keep in force or revive. Any provisions not in conformity with the present Treaty shall, however, be deleted from the above-mentioned treaties.
2. All such treaties so notified shall be registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
3. All such treaties not so notified shall be regarded as abrogated.
The maintenance of land, sea and air armaments and fortifications shall be closely restricted to meeting tasks of an internal character and local defense of frontiers. In accordance with the foregoing, Roumania is authorised to have armed forces consisting of not more than:
(a) A land army, including frontier troops, with a total strength of 120,000 personnel;
(b) Anti-aircraft artillery with a strength of 5,000 personnel;
(c) A navy with a personnel strength of 5,000 and a total tonnage of 15,000 tons;
(d) An air force, including any naval air arm, of 150 aircraft, including reserves, of which not more than 100 may be combat types of aircraft, with a total personnel strength of 8,000. Roumania shall not possess or acquire any aircraft designed primarily as bombers with internal bomb-carrying facilities.
These strengths shall in each case include combat, service and overhead personnel.
The personnel of the Roumanian Army, Navy and Air Force in excess of the respective strengths permitted under Article 11 shall be disbanded within six months from the coming into force of the present treaty.
Personnel not included in the Roumanian Army, Navy or Air Force shall not receive any form of military training, naval training or military air training as defined in Annex II.
Roumania shall not possess, construct or experiment with any atomic weapon, any self-propelled or guided missiles or apparatus connected with their discharge (other than torpedoes and torpedo-launching gear comprising the normal armament of naval vessels permitted by the present Treaty), sea mines or torpedoes of non-contact types actuated by influence mechanisms, torpedoes capable of being manned, submarines or other submersible craft, motor torpedo boats, or specialised types of assault craft.
Roumania shall not retain, produce or otherwise acquire, or maintain facilities for the manufacture of, war material in excess of that required for the maintenance of the armed forces permitted under Article 11 of the present Treaty.
1. Excess war material of Allied origin shall be placed at the disposal of the Allied or Associated Power concerned according to the instructions given by that Power. Excess Roumanian war material shall be placed at the disposal of the Governments of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Roumania shall renounce all rights to this material.
2. War material of German origin or design in excess of that required for the armed forces permitted under the present Treaty shall be placed at the disposal of the Three Governments. Roumania shall not acquire or manufacture any war material of German origin or design, or employ or train any technicians, including military and civil aviation personnel, who are or have been nationals of Germany.
3. Excess war material mentioned in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article shall be handed over or destroyed within one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty.
4. A definition and list of war material for the purposes of the present Treaty are contained in Annex III.
Roumania shall co-operate fully with the Allied and Associated Powers with a view to ensuring that Germany may not be able to take steps outside German territory towards rearmament.
Roumania shall not acquire or manufacture civil aircraft which are of German or Japanese design or which embody major assemblies of German or Japanese manufacture or design.
Each of the military, naval and air clauses of the present Treaty shall remain in force until modified in whole or in part by agreement between the Allied and Associated Powers and Roumania or, after Roumania becomes a member of the United Nations, by agreement between the Security Council and Roumania.
1. Roumanian prisoners of war shall be repatriated as soon as possible, in accordance with arrangements agreed upon by the individual Powers detaining them and Roumania.
2. All costs, including maintenance costs, incurred in moving Roumanian prisoners of war from their respective assembly points, as chosen by the Government of the Allied or Associated Power concerned, to the point of their entry into Roumanian territory, shall be borne by the Roumanian Government.
1. Upon the coming into force of the present Treaty, all Allied Forces shall, within a period of 90 days, be withdrawn from Roumania, subject to the right of the Soviet Union to keep on Roumanian territory such armed forces as it may need for the maintenance of the lines of communication of the Soviet Army with the Soviet zone of occupation in Austria.
2. All unused Roumanian currency and all Roumanian goods in possession of the Allied forces in Roumania, acquired pursuant to Article 10 of the Armistice Agreement, shall be returned to the Roumanian Government within the same period of 90 days.
3. Roumania shall, however, make available such maintenance and facilities as may specifically be required for the maintenance of the lines of communication with the Soviet zone of occupation in Austria, for which due compensation will be made to the Roumanian Government.
1. Losses caused to the Soviet Union by military operations and by the occupation by Roumania of Soviet territory shall be made good by Roumania to the Soviet Union, but, taking into consideration that Roumania has not only withdrawn from the war against the United Nations, but has declared and, in fact, waged war against Germany, it is agreed that compensation for the above losses will be made by Roumania not in full but only in part, namely in the amount of $ 300,000,000 payable over eight years from September 12, 1944, in commodities (oil products, grain, timber, seagoing and river craft, sundry machinery and other commodities).
2. The basis of calculation for the settlement provided in this Article will be the United States dollar at its gold parity on the day of the signing of the Armistice Agreement, i.e. $35 for one ounce of gold.
1. Roumania accepts the principles of the United Nations Declaration of January 5, 1943, and shall return property removed from the territory of any of the United Nations.
2. The obligation to make restitution applies to all identifiable property at present in Roumania which was removed by force or duress by any of the Axis Powers from the territory of any of the United Nations, irrespective of any subsequent transactions by which the present holder of any such property has secured possession.
3. The Government entitled to restitution and the Roumanian Government may conclude agreements which will replace the provisions of the present Article.
4. The Roumanian Government shall return the property referred to in this Article in good order and, in this connection, shall bear all costs in Roumania relating to labour, materials and transport.
5. The Roumanian Government shall co-operate with the United Nations in, and shall provide at its own expense all necessary facilities for, the search for and restitution of property liable to restitution under this Article.
6. The Roumanian Government shall take the necessary measures to effect the return of property covered by this Article held in any third country by persons subject to Roumanian jurisdiction.
7. Claims for the restitution of property shall be presented to the Roumanian Government by the Government of the country from whose territory the property was removed, it being understood that rolling stock shall be regarded as having been removed from the territory to which it originally belonged. The period during which such claims may be presented shall be six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty.
8. The burden of identifying the property and of proving ownership shall rest on the claimant Government, and the burden of proving that the property was not removed by force or duress shall rest on the Roumanian Government.
1. In so far as Roumania has not already done so, Roumania shall restore all legal rights and interests in Roumania of the United Nations and their nationals as they existed on September 1, 1939, and shall return all property in Roumania, including ships, of the United Nations and their nationals as it now exists.
If necessary, the Roumanian Government shall revoke legislation enacted since September 1, 1939, in so far as it discriminates against the rights of United Nations nationals.
2. The Roumanian Government undertakes that all property, rights and interests passing under this Article shall be restored free of all encumbrances and charges of any kind to which they may have become subject as a result of the war and without the imposition of any charges by the Roumanian Government in connection with their return. The Roumanian Government shall nullify all measures, including seizures, sequestration or control, taken by it against United Nations property between September 1, 1939, and the coming into force of the present Treaty. In cases where the property has not been returned within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, application shall be made to the Roumanian authorities not later than twelve months from the coming into force of the Treaty, except in cases in which the claimant is able to show that he could not file his application within this period.
3. The Roumanian Government shall invalidate transfers involving property, rights and interests of any description belonging to United Nations nationals, where such transfers resulted from force or duress exerted by Axis Governments or their agencies during the war.
4. (a) The Roumanian Government shall be responsible for the restoration to complete good order of the property returned to United Nations nationals under paragraph 1 of this Article. In cases where property cannot be returned or where, as a result of the war, a United Nations national has suffered a loss by reason of injury or damage to property in Roumania, he shall receive from the Roumanian Government compensation in lei to the extent of two-thirds of the sum necessary, at the date of payment, to purchase similar property or to make good the loss suffered. In no event shall United Nations nationals receive less favourable treatment with respect to compensation than that accorded to Roumanian nationals.
(b) United Nations nationals who hold, directly or indirectly, ownership interests in corporations or associations which are not United Nations nationals within the meaning of paragraph 9 (a) of this Article, but which have suffered a loss by reason of injury or damage to property in Roumania, shall receive compensation in accordance with sub-paragraph (a) above. This compensation shall be calculated on the basis of the total loss or damage suffered by the corporation or association and shall bear the same proportion to such loss or damage as the beneficial interests of such nationals in the corporation or association bear to the total capital thereof.
(c) Compensation shall be paid free of any levies, taxes or other charges. It shall be freely usable in Roumania but shall be subject to the foreign exchange control regulations which may be in force in Roumania from time to time.
(d) The Roumanian Government shall accord to United Nations nationals the same treatment in the allocation of materials for the repair or rehabilitation of their property in Roumania and in the allocation of foreign exchange for the importation of such materials as applies to Roumanian nationals.
(e) The Roumanian Government shall grant United Nations nationals an indemnity in lei at the same rate as provided in sub-paragraph (a) above to compensate them for the loss or damage due to special measures applied to their property during the war, and which were not applicable to Roumanian property. This sub-paragraph does not apply to a loss of profit.
5. The provisions of paragraph 4 of this Article shall not apply to Roumania in so far as the action which may give rise to a claim for damage to property in Northern Transylvania belonging to the United Nations or their nationals took place during the period when this territory was not subject to Roumanian authority.
6. All reasonable expenses incurred in Roumania in establishing claims, including the assessment of loss or damage, shall be borne by the Roumanian Government.
7. United Nations nationals and their property shall be exempted from any exceptional taxes, levies or imposts imposed on their capital assets in Roumania by the Roumanian Government or any Roumanian authority between the date of the Armistice and the coming into force of the present Treaty for the specific purpose of meeting charges arising out of the war or of meeting the costs of occupying forces or of reparation payable to any of the United Nations. Any sums which have been so paid shall be refunded.
8. The owner of the property concerned and the Roumanian Government may agree upon arrangements in lieu of the provisions of this Article.
9. As used in this Article:
(a) "United Nations nationals" means individuals who are nationals of any of the United Nations, or corporations or associations organised under the laws of any of the United Nations, at the coming into force of the present Treaty, provided that the said individuals, corporations or associations also had this status at the date of the Armistice with Roumania.
The term "United Nations nationals" also includes all individuals, corporations or associations which, under the laws in force in Roumania during the war, have been treated as enemy;
(b) "Owner" means the United Nations national, as defined in sub-paragraph (a) above, who is entitled to the property in question, and includes a successor of the owner, provided that the successor is also a United Nations national as defined in sub-paragraph (a). If the successor has purchased the property in its damaged state, the transferor shall retain his rights to compensation under this Article, without prejudice to obligations between the transferor and the purchaser under domestic law;
(c) "Property" means all movable or immovable property, whether tangible or intangible, including industrial, literary and artistic property, as well as all rights or interests of any kind in property. Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provisions, the property of the United Nations and their nationals includes all seagoing and river vessels, together with their gear and equipment, which were either owned by United Nations or their nationals, or registered in the territory of one of the United Nations, or sailed under the flag of one of the United Nations and which, after September 1, 1939, while in Roumanian waters, or after they had been forcibly brought into Roumanian waters, either were placed under the control of the Roumanian authorities as enemy property or ceased to be at the free disposal in Roumania of the United Nations or their nationals, as a result of measures of control taken by the Roumanian authorities in relation to the existence of a state of war between members of the United Nations and Germany.
1. Roumania undertakes that in all cases where the property, legal rights or interests in Roumania of persons under Roumanian jurisdiction have, since September 1, 1939, been the subject of measures of sequestration, confiscation or control on account of the racial origin or religion of such persons, the said property, legal rights and interests shall be restored together with their accessories or, if restoration is impossible, that fair compensation shall be made therefor.
2. All property, rights and interests in Roumania of persons, organisations or communities which, individually or as members of groups, were the object of racial, religious or other Fascist measures of persecution, and remaining heirless or unclaimed for six months after the coming into force of the present Treaty, shall be transferred by the Roumanian Government to organisations in Roumania representative of such persons, organisations or communities. The property transferred shall be used by such organisations for purposes of relief and rehabilitation of surviving members of such groups, organisations and communities in Roumania. Such transfer shall be effected within twelve months from the coming into force of the Treaty, and shall include property, rights and interests required to be restored under paragraph 1 of this Article.
Roumania recognizes that the Soviet Union is entitled to all German assets in Roumania transferred to the Soviet Union by the Control Council for Germany and undertakes to take all necessary measures to facilitate such transfers.
1. Each of the Allied and Associated Powers shall have the right to seize, retain, liquidate or take any other action with respect to all property, rights and interests which at the coming into force of the present Treaty are within its territory and belong to Roumania or to Roumanian nationals, and to apply such property or the proceeds thereof to such purposes as it may desire, within the limits of its claims and those of its nationals against Roumania or Roumanian nationals, including debts, other than claims fully satisfied under other Articles of the present Treaty. All Roumanian property, or the proceeds thereof, in excess of the amount of such claims, shall be returned.
2. The liquidation and disposition of Roumanian property shall be carried out in accordance with the law of the Allied or Associated Power concerned. The Roumanian owner shall have no rights with respect to such property except those which may be given him by that law.
3. The Roumanian Government undertakes to compensate Roumanian nationals whose property is taken under this Article and not returned to them.
4. No obligation is created by this Article on any Allied or Associated Power to return industrial property to the Roumanian Government or Roumanian nationals, or to include such property in determining the amounts which may be retained under paragraph 1 of this Article. The Government of each of the Allied and Associated Powers shall have the right to impose such limitations, conditions and restrictions on rights or interests with respect to industrial property in the territory of that Allied or Associated Power, acquired prior to the coming into force of the present Treaty by the Government or nationals of Roumania, as may be deemed by the Government of the Allied or Associated Power to be necessary in the national interest.
5. The property covered by paragraph 1 of this Article shall be deemed to include Roumanian property which has been subject to control by reason of a state of war existing between Roumania and the Allied or Associated Power having jurisdiction over the property, but shall not include:
(a) Property of the Roumanian Government used for consular or diplomatic purposes;
(b) Property belonging to religious bodies or private charitable institutions and used for religious or charitable purposes;
(c) Property of natural persons who are Roumanian nationals permitted to reside within the territory of the country in which the property is located or to reside elsewhere in United Nations territory, other than Roumanian property which at any time during the war was subjected to measures not generally applicable to the property of Roumanian nationals resident in the same territory;
(d) Property rights arising since the resumption of trade and financial relations between the Allied and Associated Powers and Roumania, or arising out of transactions between the Government of any Allied or Associated Power and Roumania since September 12, 1944;
(e) Literary and artistic property rights.
1. From the coming into force of the present Treaty, property in Germany of Roumania and of Roumanian nationals shall no longer be treated as enemy property and all restrictions based on such treatment shall be removed.
2. Identifiable property of Roumania and of Roumanian nationals removed by force or duress from Roumanian territory to Germany by German forces or authorities after September 12, 1944, shall be eligible for restitution.
3. The restoration and restitution of Roumanian property in Germany shall be effected in accordance with measures which will be determined by the Powers in occupation of Germany.
4. Without prejudice to these and to any other dispositions in favor of Roumania and Roumanian nationals by the Powers occupying Germany, Roumania waives on its own behalf and on behalf of Roumanian nationals all claims against Germany and German nationals outstanding on May 8, 1945, except those arising out of contracts and other obligations entered into, and rights acquired, before September 1, 1939. This waiver shall be deemed to include debts, all inter-governmental claims in respect of arrangements entered into in the course of the war and all claims for loss or damage arising during the war.
1. The existence of the state of war shall not, in itself, be regarded as affecting the obligation to pay pecuniary debts arising out of obligations and contracts which existed, and rights which were acquired, before the existence of the state of war, which became payable prior to the coming into force of the present Treaty, and which are due by the Government or nationals of Roumania to the Government or nationals of one of the Allied and Associated Powers or are due by the Government or nationals of one of the Allied and Associated Powers to the Government or nationals of Roumania.
2. Except as otherwise expressly provided in the present Treaty, nothing therein shall be construed as impairing debtor-creditor relationships arising out of pre-war contracts concluded either by the Government or nationals of Roumania.
1. Roumania waives all claims of any description against the Allied and Associated Powers on behalf of the Roumanian Government or Roumanian nationals arising directly out of the war or out of actions taken because of the existence of a state of war in Europe after September 1, 1939, whether or not the Allied or Associated Power was at war with Roumania at the time, including the following:
(a) Claims for losses or damages sustained as a consequence of acts of forces or authorities of Allied or Associated Powers;
(b) Claims arising from the presence, operations or actions of forces or authorities of Allied or Associated Powers in Roumanian territory;
(c) Claims with respect to the decrees or orders of Prize Courts of Allied or Associated Powers, Roumania agreeing to accept as valid and binding all decrees and orders of such Prize Courts on or after September 1, 1939, concerning Roumanian ships or Roumanian goods or the payment of costs;
(d) Claims arising out of the exercise or purported exercise of belligerent rights.
2. The provisions of this Article shall bar, completely and finally, all claims of the nature referred to herein, which will be henceforward extinguished, whoever may be the parties in interest. The Roumanian Government agrees to make equitable compensation in lei to persons who furnished supplies or services on requisition to the forces of Allied or Associated Powers in Roumanian territory and in satisfaction of noncombat damage claims against the forces of Allied or Associated Powers arising in Roumanian territory.
3. Roumania likewise waives all claims of the nature covered by paragraph 1 of this Article on behalf of the Roumanian Government or Roumanian nationals against any of the United Nations whose diplomatic relations with Roumania were broken off during the war and which took action in co-operation with the Allied and Associated Powers.
4. The Roumanian Government shall assume full responsibility for all Allied military currency issued in Roumania by the Allied military authorities, including all such currency in circulation at the coming into force of the present Treaty.
5. The waiver of claims by Roumania under paragraph 1 of this Article includes any claims arising out of actions taken by any of the Allied and Associated Powers with respect to Roumanian ships between September 1, 1939, and the coming into force of the present Treaty, as well as any claims and debts arising out of the Conventions on prisoners of war now in force.
1. Pending the conclusion of commercial treaties or agreements between individual United Nations and Roumania, the Roumanian Government shall, during a period of eighteen months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, grant the following treatment to each of the United Nations which, in fact, reciprocally grants similar treatment in like matters to Roumania:
(a) In all that concerns duties and charges on importation or exportation, the internal taxation of imported goods and all regulations pertaining thereto, the United Nations shall be granted unconditional most-favoured-nation treatment;
(b) In all other respects, Roumania shall make no arbitrary discrimination against goods originating in or destined for any territory of any of the United Nations as compared with like goods originating in or destined for territory of any other of the United Nations or of any other foreign country;
(c) United Nations nationals, including juridical persons, shall be granted national and most-favoured-nation treatment in all matters pertaining to commerce, industry, shipping and other forms of business activity within Roumania. These provisions shall not apply to commercial aviation;
(d) Roumania shall grant no exclusive or discriminatory right to any country with regard to the operation of commercial aircraft in international traffic, shall afford all the United Nations equality of opportunity in obtaining international commercial aviation rights in Roumanian territory, including the right to land for refueling and repair, and, with regard to the operation of commercial aircraft in international traffic, shall grant on a reciprocal and non-discriminatory basis to all United Nations the right to fly over Roumanian territory without landing. These provisions shall not affect the interests of the national defence of Roumania.
2. The foregoing undertakings by Roumania shall be understood to be subject to the exceptions customarily included in commercial treaties concluded by Roumania before the war, and the provisions with respect to reciprocity granted by each of the United Nations shall be understood to be subject to the exceptions customarily included in the commercial treaties concluded by that State.
1. Any disputes which may arise in connection with Articles 23 and 24 and Annexes IV, V and VI, part B of the present Treaty shall be referred to a Conciliation Commission composed of an equal number of representatives of the United Nations Government concerned and of the Roumanian Government. If agreement has not been reached within three months of the dispute having been referred to the Conciliation Commission, either Government may require the addition of a third member to the Commission, and failing agreement between the two Governments on the selection of this member, the Secretary-General of the United Nations may be requested by either party to make the appointment.
2. The decision of the majority of the members of the Commission shall be the decision of the Commission and shall be accepted by the parties as definitive and binding.
Any disputes which may arise in connection with the prices paid by the Roumanian Government for goods delivered by this Government on account of reparation and acquired from nationals of an Allied or Associated Power or companies owned by them shall be settled, without prejudice to the execution of the obligations of Roumania with regard to reparation, by means of diplomatic negotiations between the Government of the country concerned and the Roumanian Government. Should the direct diplomatic negotiations between the parties concerned not result in a solution of the dispute within two months, such dispute shall be referred to the Heads of the Diplomatic Missions in Bucharest of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States of America for settlement. In case the Heads of Mission fail to reach agreement within two months, either party may request the Secretary-General of the United Nations to appoint an arbitrator whose decision shall be binding on the parties to the dispute.
Articles 23, 24, 31 and Annex VI of the present Treaty shall apply to the Allied and Associated Powers and France and to those of the United Nations whose diplomatic relations with Roumania have been broken off during the war.
Navigation on the Danube shall be free and open for the nationals, vessels of commerce, and goods of all States, on a footing of equality in regard to port and navigation charges and conditions for merchant shipping. The foregoing shall not apply to traffic between ports of the same State.
1. For a period not to exceed eighteen months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, the Heads of the Diplomatic Missions in Bucharest of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, acting in concert, will represent the Allied and Associated Powers in dealing with the Roumanian Government in all matters concerning the execution and interpretation of the present Treaty.
2. The Three Heads of Mission will given the Roumanian Government such guidance, technical advice and clarification as may be necessary to ensure the rapid and efficient execution of the present Treaty both in letter and in spirit.
3. The Roumanian Government shall afford the said Three Heads of Mission all necessary information and any assistance which they may require in the fulfilment of the tasks devolving on them under the present Treaty.
1. Except where another procedure is specifically provided under any Article of the present Treaty, any dispute concerning the interpretation or execution of the Treaty, which is not settled by direct diplomatic negotiations, shall be referred to the Three Heads of Mission acting under Article 37, except that in this case the Heads of Mission will not be restricted by the time limit provided in that Article. Any such dispute not resolved by them within a period of two months shall, unless the parties to the dispute mutually agree upon another means of settlement, be referred at the request of either party to the dispute to a Commission composed of one representative of each party and a third member selected by mutual agreement of the two parties from nationals of a third country. Should the two parties fail to agree within a period of one month upon the appointment of the third member, the Secretary-General of the United Nations may be requested by either party to make the appointment.
2. The decision of the majority of the members of the Commission shall be the decision of the Commission, and shall be accepted by the parties as definitive and binding.
1. Any member of the United Nations, not a signatory to the present Treaty, which is at war with Roumania, may accede to the Treaty and upon accession shall be deemed to be an Associated Power for the purposes of the Treaty.
2. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and shall take effect upon deposit.
The present Treaty, of which the Russian and English texts are authentic, shall be ratified by the Allied and Associated Powers. It shall also be ratified by Roumania. It shall come into force immediately upon the deposit of ratifications by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America. The instruments of ratification shall, in the shortest time possible, be deposited with the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
With respect to each Allied or Associated Power whose instrument of ratification is thereafter deposited, the Treaty shall come into force upon the date of deposit. The present Treaty shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which shall furnish certified copies to each of the signatory States.
(See Article 13)
Definition of Military, Military Air and Naval Training
1. Military training is defined as: the study of and practice in the use of war material specially designed or adapted for army purposes, and training devices relative thereto; the study and carrying out of all drill or movements which teach or practice evolutions performed by fighting forces in battle; and the organised study of tactics, strategy and staff work.
2. Military air training is defined as: the study of and practice in the use of war material specially designed or adapted for air force purposes, and training devices relative thereto; the study and practice of all specialised evolutions, including formation flying, performed by aircraft in the accomplishment of an air force mission; and the organised study of air tactics, strategy and staff work.
3. Naval training is defined as: the study, administration or practice in the use of warships or naval establishments as well as the study or employment of all apparatus and training devices relative thereto, which are used in the prosecution of naval warfare, except for those which are also normally used for civilian purposes; also the teaching, practice or organised study of naval tactics, strategy and staff work including the execution of all operations and manoeuvres not required in the peaceful employment of ships.
(See Article 16)
Definition and List of War Material
The term "war material" as used in the present Treaty shall include all arms, ammunition and implements specially designed or adapted for use in war as listed below.
The Allied and Associated Powers reserve the right to amend the list periodically by modification or addition in the light of subsequent scientific development.
1. Military rifles, carbines, revolvers and pistols; barrels for those weapons and other spare parts not readily adaptable for civilian use.
2. Machine guns, military automatic or autoloading rifles, and machine pistols; barrels for these weapons and other spare parts not readily adaptable for civilian use; machine gun mounts.
3. Guns, hawitzers, mortars, cannon special to aircraft; breechless or recoilless guns and flamethrowers; barrels and other spare parts not readily adaptable for civilian use; carriages and mountings for the foregoing.
4. Rocket projectors; launching and control mechanisms for self-propelling and guided missiles; mountings for same.
5. Self-propelling and guided missiles, projectiles, rockets, fixed ammunition and cartridges, filled or unfilled, for the arms listed in subparagraphs 1-4 above and fuses, tubes or contrivances to explode or operate them. Fuses required for civilian use are not included.
6. Grenades, bombs, torpedoes, mines, depth charges and incendiary materials or charges, filled or unfilled; all means for exploding or operating them. Fuses required for civilian use are not included.
1. Armoured fighting vehicles; armoured trains, not technically convertible to civilian use.
2. Mechanical and self-propelled carriages for any of the weapons listed in Category I; special type military chassis or bodies other than those enumerated in sub-paragraph 1 above.
3. Armour plate, greater than three inches in thickness, used for protective purposes in warfare.
1. Aiming and computing devices, including predictors and plotting apparatus, for fire control; direction of fire instruments; gun sights; bomb sights; fuse setters; equipment for the calibration of guns and fire control instruments.
2. Assault bridging, assault boats and storm boats.
3. Deceptive warfare, dazzle and decoy devices.
4. Personal war equipment of a specialised nature not readily adaptable to civilian use.
1. Warships of all kinds, including converted vessels and craft designed or intended for their attendance or support, which cannot be technically converted to civilian use, as well as weapons, armour, ammunition, aircraft and all other equipment, material, machines and installations not used in peace time on ships other than warships.
2. Landing craft and amphibious vehicles or equipment of any kind; assault boats or devices of any type as well as catapults or other apparatus for launching or throwing aircraft, rockets, propelled weapons or any other missile, instrument or device whether manned or unmanned, guided or uncontrolled.
3. Submersible or semi-submersible ships, craft, weapons, devices or apparatus of any kind, including specially designed harbour defence booms, except as required by salvage, rescue or other civilian uses, as well as all equipment, accessories, spare parts, experimental or training aids, instruments or installations as may be specially designed for the construction, testing, maintenance or housing of the same.
1. Aircraft, assembled or unassembled, both heavier and lighter than air, which are designed or adapted for aerial combat by the use of machine guns, rocket projectors or artillery or for the carrying and dropping of bombs, or which are equipped with, or which by reason of their design or construction are prepared for, any of the appliances referred to in subparagraph 2 below.
2. Aerial gun mounts and frames, bomb racks, torpedo carriers and bomb release or torpedo release mechanisms; gun turrets and blisters.
3. Equipment specially designed for and used solely by airborne troops.
4. Catapults or launching apparatus for ship-borne, land-or sea-based aircraft; apparatus for launching aircraft weapons.
5. Barrage balloons.
Asphyxiating, lethal, toxic or incapacitating substances intended for war purposes, or manufactured in excess of civilian requirements.
Propellants, explosives, pyrotechnics or liquefied gases destined for the propulsion, explosion, charging or filling of, or for use in connection with, the war material in the present categories, not capable of civilian use or manufactured in excess of civilian requirements.
Factory and tool equipment specially designed for the production and maintenance of the material enumerated above and not technically convertible to civilian use.
Special Provisions Relating to Certain Kinds of Property
A. INDUSTRIAL, LITERARY AND ARTISTIC PROPERTY
1. (a) A period of one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty shall be accorded to the Allied and Associated Powers and their nationals without extension fees or other penalty of any sort in order to enable them to accomplish all necessary acts for the obtaining or preserving in Roumania of rights in industrial, literary and artistic property which were not capable of accomplishment owing to the existence of a state of war.
(b) Allied and Associated Powers or their nationals who had duly applied in the territory of any Allied or Associated Power for a patent or registration of a utility model not earlier than twelve months before the outbreak of the war with Roumania or during the war, or for the registration of an industrial design or model or trade mark not earlier than six months before the outbreak of the war with Roumania or during the war, shall be entitled within twelve months after the coming into force of the present Treaty to apply for corresponding rights in Roumania, with a right of priority based upon the previous filing of the application in the territory of that Allied or Associated Power.
(c) Each of the Allied and Associated Powers and its nationals shall be accorded a period of one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty during which they may institute proceedings in Roumania against those natural or juridical persons who are alleged illegally to have infringed their rights in industrial, literary or artistic property between the date of the outbreak of the war and the coming into force of the Treaty.
2. A period from the outbreak of the war until a date eighteen months after the coming into force of the present Treaty shall be excluded in determining the time within which a patent must be worked or a design or trade mark used.
3. The period from the outbreak of the war until the coming into force of the present Treaty shall be excluded from the normal term of rights in industrial, literary and artistic property which were in force in Roumania at the outbreak of the war or which are recognized or established under part A of this Annex and belong to any of the Allied and Associated Powers or their nationals. Consequently, the normal duration of such rights shall be deemed to be automatically extended in Roumania for a further term corresponding to the period so excluded.
4. The foregoing provisions concerning the rights in Roumania of the Allied and Associated Powers and their nationals shall apply equally to the rights in the territories of the Allied and Associated Powers of Roumania and its nationals. Nothing, however, in these provisions shall entitle Roumania or its nationals to more favourable treatment in the territory of any of the Allied and Associated Powers than is accorded by such Power in like cases to other United Nations or their nationals, nor shall Roumania be thereby required to accord to any of the Allied and Associated Powers or its nationals more favourable treatment than Roumania or its nationals receive in the territory of such Power in regard to the matters dealt with in the foregoing provisions.
5. Third parties in the territories of any of the Allied and Associated Powers or Roumania who, before the coming into force of the present Treaty, had bona fide acquired industrial, literary or artistic property rights conflicting with rights restored under part A of this Annex or with rights obtained with the priority provided thereunder, or had bona fide manufactured, published, reproduced, used or sold the subject matter of such rights, shall be permitted, without any liability for infringement, to continue to exercise such rights and to continue or to resume such manufacture, publication, reproduction, use or sale which had been bona fide acquired or commenced. In Roumania, such permission shall take the form of a non-exclusive licence granted on terms and conditions to be mutually agreed by the parties thereto or, in default of agreement, to be fixed by the Conciliation Commission established under Article 32 of the present Treaty. In the territories of each of the Allied and Associated Powers, however, bona fide third parties shall receive such protection as is accorded under similar circumstances to bona fide third parties whose rights are in conflict with those of the nationals of other Allied and Associated Powers.
6. Nothing in part A of this Annex shall be construed to entitle Roumania or its nationals to any patent or utility model rights in the territory of any of the Allied and Associated Powers with respect to inventions, relating to any article listed by name in Annex III of the present Treaty, made, or upon which applications were filed, by Roumania, or any of its nationals, in Roumania or in the territory of any other of the Axis Powers, or in any territory occupied by the Axis forces, during the time when such territory was under the control of the forces or authorities of the Axis Powers.
7. Roumania shall likewise extend the benefits of the foregoing provisions of this Annex to France, and to other United Nations which are not Allied or Associated Powers, whose diplomatic relations with Roumania have been broken off during the war and which undertake to extend to Roumania the benefits accorded to Roumania under the said provisions.
1. No obstacles, other than any applicable to insurers generally, shall be placed in the way of the resumption by insurers who are United Nations nationals of their former portfolios of business.
2. Should an insurer, who is a national of any of the United Nations, wish to resume his professional activities in Roumania, and should the value of the guarantee deposits or reserves required to be held as a condition of carrying on business in Roumania be found to have decreased as a result of the loss or depreciation of the securities which constituted such deposits or reserves, the Roumania Government undertakes to accept, for a period of eighteen months, such securities as still remain as fulfilling any legal requirements in respect of deposits and reserves.
Contracts, Prescription and Negotiable Instruments
1. Any contract which required for its execution intercourse between any of the parties thereto having become enemies as defined in part D of this Annex, shall, subject to the exceptions set out in paragraphs 2 and 3 below, be deemed to have been dissolved as from the time when any of the parties thereto became enemies. Such dissolution, however, is without prejudice to the provisions of Article 29 of the present Treaty, nor shall it relieve any party to the contract from the obligation to repay amounts received as advances or as payments on account and in respect of which such party has not rendered performance in return.
2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 above, there shall be excepted from dissolution and, without prejudice to the rights contained in Article 27 of the present Treaty, there shall remain in force such parts of any contract as are severable and did not require for their execution intercourse between any of the parties thereto, having become enemies as defined in part D of this Annex. Where the provisions of any contract are not so severable, the contract shall be deemed to have been dissolved in its entirety. The foregoing shall be subject to the application of domestic laws, orders or regulations made by any of the Allied and Associated Powers having jurisdiction over the contract or over any of the parties thereto and shall be subject to the terms of the contract.
3. Nothing in part A of this Annex shall be deemed to invalidate transactions lawfully carried out in accordance with the authorization of the Government of one of the Allied and Associated Powers.
4. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, contracts of insurance and re-insurance shall be subject to separate agreements between the Government of the Allied or Associated Power concerned and the Government of Roumania.
B. PERIODS OF PRESCRIPTION
1. All periods of prescription or limitation of right of action or of the right to take conservatory measures in respect of relations affecting persons or property, involving United Nations nationals and Roumanian nationals who, by reason of the state of war, were unable to take judicial action or to comply with the formalities necessary to safeguard their rights, irrespective of whether these periods commenced before or after the outbreak of war, shall be regarded as having been suspended, for the duration of the war, in Roumanian territory on the one hand, and on the other hand in the territory of those United Nations which grant to Roumania, on a reciprocal basis, the benefit of the provisions of this paragraph. These periods shall begin to run again on the coming into force of the present Treaty. The provisions of this paragraph shall be applicable in regard to the periods fixed for the presentation of interest or dividend coupons or for the presentation for payment of securities drawn for repayment or repayable on any other ground.
2. Where, on account of failure to perform any act or to comply with any formality during the war, measures of execution have been taken in Roumanian territory to the prejudice of a national of one of the United Nations, the Roumanian Government shall restore the rights which have been detrimentally affected. If such restoration is impossible or would be inequitable, the Roumanian Government shall provide that the United Nations national shall be afforded such relief as may be just and equitable in the circumstances.
C. NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
1. As between enemies, no negotiable instrument made before the war shall be deemed to have become invalid by reason only of failure within the required time to present the instrument for acceptance or payment, or to give notice of non-acceptance or non-payment to drawers or endorsers, or to protest the instrument, nor by reason of failure to complete any formality during the war.
2. Where the period within which a negotiable instrument should have been presented for acceptance or for payment, or within which notice of non-acceptance or non-payment should have been given to the drawer or endorser, or within which the instrument should have been protested, has elapsed during the war, and the party who should have presented or protested the instrument or have given notice of non-acceptance or non-payment has failed to do so during the war, a period of not less than three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty shall be allowed within which presentation, notice of non-acceptance or non-payment, or protest may be made.
3. If a person has, either before or during the war, incurred obligations under a negotiable instrument in consequence of an undertaking given to him by a person who has subsequently become an enemy, the latter shall remain liable to indemnify the former in respect of these obligations, notwithstanding the outbreak of war.
D. SPECIAL PROVISIONS
1. For the purposes of this Annex, natural or juridical persons shall be regarded as enemies from the date when trading between them shall have become unlawful under laws, orders or regulations to which such persons or the contracts were subject.
2. Having regard to the legal system of the United States of America, the provisions of this Annex shall not apply as between the United States of America and Roumania.
Prize Courts and Judgments
A. PRIZE COURTS
Each of the Allied and Associated Powers reserves the right to examine, according to a procedure to be established by it, all decisions and orders of the Roumanian Prize Courts in cases involving ownership rights of its nationals, and to recommend to the Roumanian Government that revision shall be undertaken of such of those decisions or orders as may not be in conformity with international law.
The Roumanian Government undertakes to supply copies of all documents comprising the records of these cases, including the decisions taken and orders issued, and to accept all recommendations made as a result of the examination of the said cases, and to give effect to such recommendations.
The Roumanian Government shall take the necessary measures to enable nationals of any of the United Nations at any time within one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty to submit to the appropriate Roumanian authorities for review any judgment given by a Roumanian court between June 22, 1941, and the coming into force of the present Treaty in any proceeding in which the United Nations national was unable to make adequate presentation of his case either as plaintiff or defendant. The Roumanian Government shall provide that, where the United Nations national has suffered injury by reason of any such judgment, he shall be restored in the position in which he was before the judgment was given or shall be afforded such relief as may be just and equitable in the circumstances. The term "United Nations nationals" includes corporations or associations organized or constituted under the laws of any of the United Nations.
In faith whereof the undersigned Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty and have affixed thereto their seals.
Done in the city of Paris in the Russian, English, French and Roumanian languages this tenth day of February, One Thousand Nine Hundred Forty-Seven.
Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949
Compiled under the direction of Charles I. Bevans LL.B.
Assistant Legal Advisor Department of State
Department of State Publication 8484
Washington, DC : Government Printing Office, 1969