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COL. POKROVSKY: May I continue with my statement?
THE PRESIDENT: Yes, please.
COL. POKROVSKY: The end of the session prevented me yesterday from quoting a brief excerpt from a very secret, a very important state document, dated 22 September 1938. I propose to begin today's work as from this point, and to read into the record the first six lines of the document submitted as Exhibit Number USSR-267 (Document Number USSR-267), which you will find, Your Honors, in Volume I, Part 1, Page 202 of your document book. This brief excerpt shows with absolute clearness the questions about the meaning of the so-called Sudetendeutsche Freikorps, the existence of which was briefly referred to in former sessions.
I quote the first six lines from notes made after a telephone conversation which took place in Berlin between one of the leaders of the so-called Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle and the Government in Berlin, at 1900 hours on 22 September 1938. Permit me to read these six lines into the record:
"Herr Schmidt, from the Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle, telephoned at 1900 as follows:
"The Command of the Sudetendeutsche Freikorps has just communicated the following:
"First Lieutenant Kodbling transmitted the following Fuehrer order: 'Freikorps has to carry out the occupation of regions evacuated by the Czechs. Large-scale operations, however, may be executed only with the Fuehrer's personal approval."'
The rest of this document, signed by Von Stechow, is of no interest and I will not read it into the record.
As far as I can judge, the minutes of Hitler's reception of the Czech Minister for Foreign Affairs, Chvalkovsky, on 21 January 1939- that is shortly before the complete occupation of Czechoslovakia- are of great interest. Hitler's mendacious and pompous statements with respect to the independence of small nations, statements recorded in the document I am about to quote, are characteristic of his perfidious tactics.
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The document which I am going to read into the record as Exhibit Number USSR-266 (Document Number USSR-266) you will find, Your Honors, on Page 203, Part 1 of Volume I of our document book:
"Chvalkovsky began by thanking the Fuehrer for having done his country the honor of receiving the Minister for Foreign Affairs twice within 3 months. He had come here to inform the Fuehrer that he had strictly fulfilled the promise made to him on 14 October although this had cost him a very great deal of trouble....
"The Fuehrer thanked him for his statements. The foreign policy of a people is determined by its home policy. It is quite impossible to carry out a foreign policy of type 'A' and at the same time a home policy of type 'B.' It could succeed only for a short time. From the very beginning the development of events in Czechoslovakia was bound to lead to a catastrophe. This catastrophe had been averted thanks to the moderate conduct of Germany.
"Had Germany not followed the National Socialist principles which do not permit of territorial annexations the fate of Czechoslovakia would have followed another course. Whatever remains today of Czechoslovakia has been rescued not by Benes, but by the National Socialist tendencies."
I omit a few sentences and continue:
"For instance, the strength of the Dutch and Danish armies rests not in themselves alone but in realizing the fact that the whole world was convinced of the absolute neutrality of these states. When war broke out, it was well known that the problem of neutrality was one of extreme importance to these countries. The case of Belgium was somewhat different, as that country had an agreement with the French General Staff. In this particular case Germany was compelled to forestall possible eventualities. These small countries were defended not by their armies but by the trust shown in their neutrality."
You will find a further part of this quotation on Page 207:
"Chvalkovsky, backed by Mastny, again spoke about the situation in Czechoslovakia and about the healthy farmers there. Before the crisis, the people did not know what to expect of Germany. But when they saw that they would not be exterminated and that the Germans wished only to lead their people back home, they heaved a sigh of relief.
"World propaganda, against which the Fuehrer had been struggling for so long a time, was now focused on tiny Czechoslovakia. Chvalkovsky begged the Fuehrer to address,
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from time to time, a few kind words to the Czech people. That might work miracles. The Fuehrer is unaware of the great value attached to his words by the Czech people. If he would only openly declare that he intended to collaborate with the Czech people-and with the people, themselves, not with the Minister for Foreign Affairs-all foreign propaganda would be utterly defeated.
"The Fuehrer concluded the conversation by expressing his belief in a promising future."
These notes are signed by Hewel.
It would now be opportune to refer once again to a document which has already been mentioned in the Tribunal. I mean a socalled top-secret document, for officers only, of the 30th of May 1938. It bears the number OKW 42/38, and under Document Number 388-PS has already been presented to the Tribunal by my honorable colleagues of the United States Delegation. The Chief Prosecutor of the U.S.S.R. likewise referred to this document in his opening statement.
Formulating the gist of the fascist conspiracy against Czechoslovakia, Hitler announced that it was his irrevocable decision to defeat Czechoslovakia in the immediate future and by one single military operation. He divided his task into two parts: political and military. Then, with his characteristic and unbounded cynicism, he declares-his quotation is to be found on Page 209 of Volume I, Part 1 of the document book:
"The most favorable, both from the political and military standpoint, would be a lightning blow to be delivered under the pretext of some incident which will provoke Germany to abrupt action...."
The document bears Hitler's signature. Such was the authentic program of Hitler and his accomplices concerning Czechoslovakia, drawn up for a long time in advance of the day when Chvalkovsky requested that criminal "to address from time to time a few kind words to the Czech people."
Even if in his public utterances Hitler sometimes used what Chvalkovsky called "kind words," the line of the actual relations was developing in an entirely different direction. But even this is not all. We shall postpone the question of the provocative incident until the end.
The notes to the report on Fall Grun of 24 August 1938 have already been read into the record in the most important part, as Document Number 388-PS. Here are two additional paragraphs which should be read. Your Honors will find on Page 214 of Volume I of the document book:
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"Fall Grun will start with the creation of an incident in Czechoslovakia which will give Germany a pretext for military intervention.
"It is of the greatest importance to fix the exact day and hour for staging the incident.
"This incident must be provoked under weather conditions favorable for our superior air force in carrying out the operation and it should be timed in such a way that the respective notification should authentically reach us by midday of X-1 Day. This will enable us to follow it up immediately by issuing the order X, on X-1 Day, at 1400 hours."
The document concluded as follows-see Page 215 of your document book:
"The purpose of these statements is to show how greatly interested the Armed Forces are in the incident, and that they should know well in advance the intentions of the Fuehrer, inasmuch as the organization of the incident will be entrusted, in any case, to the Abwehr."
The document is signed by Jodl. These are not mere words. This is a plan of infamous provocation; a plan which, as we already know, has been carried into effect.
Document Number 388-PS has already been accepted by you as evidence presented by the Delegation of the United States. I should like only to stress one point: The murderers and invaders not only develop in cold blood the plans of their crimes but are also anxious to put them into effect under the most advantageous conditions possible for themselves. They need fine weather and at least 24 hours for the final preparation. Moreover, they need an incident, provoked by themselves, to justify their foul crimes in the "eyes of at least some part of the world community." This latter fact demonstrates that the Hitlerites themselves were perfectly aware of the criminality of their actions.
In passing, I wish to draw your attention to one point: OKW bears direct responsibility for the criminal character of these actions. They cannot plead, "We know not what we did." The agents provocateurs and aggressors, in the uniform of the highest ranks of the German Army, were the first to name themselves agents provocateurs and aggressors.
Finally, I have to inform the Tribunal that one of the ultimate aims of the fascist invasion of Czechoslovakia was the liquidation of this historically constituted Slav state.
On Page 36 of the official report of the Czechoslovak Government, the original of which was submitted to you yesterday, we can read the following quotation from a statement made by Hitler
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in the summer of 1932 in the presence of Darre, Rauschning, and other high fascist officials. I shall quote this excerpt, which is on Page 38 of the Volume I, Part 1 of your document book:
"The Bohemian-Moravian Basin . . . will be colonized with German peasants. We shall transplant the Czechs to Siberia or the Volhynian district. They must get out of Central Europe ...."
This statement by Hitler is quoted in the Czechoslovak report from Rauschning's book Hitler Speaks, Page 46.
I consider it necessary to read into the record a passage from the Czechoslovak report, which immediately follows the above mentioned quotation-Page 36 of the Russian translation, the last paragraph at the end of the page. You will find this quotation on Page 39, Volume I, Part 1 of the document book, in the last paragraph of this page:
"This criminal plan was approved by Karl Hermann Frank, Secretary of State of the Reich Protector in Prague from 17 March 1939 and Minister of State in Prague from 1943, known to the world as the Butcher of Lidice. Interrogated on this point by Colonel Ecer, in Wiesbaden on 29 May 1945, Frank declared:
" 'The plan for the evacuation of the Czech people to the East, as mentioned above and decided in Party circles, roughly coincides with the passage quoted.' "
The Defendant Neurath was Reich Protector for Bohemia and Moravia from 17 March 1938 to 28 September 1941. He did much to destroy Czechoslovakia as a state entity.
Appendix 1 to the Report of the Czechoslovak Government reads as follows-you will find this extract on Page 167 of Volume I, Part 2 of the document book: "The Reich Protector was the highest of the Reich authorities, agencies, and officials in the Protectorate." The Defendant Neurath must not escape responsibility for these crimes.
My colleagues of the Soviet Delegation will submit evidence to show the Tribunal the upheaval in the life of the work-loving Czech people, from the moment that the Hitlerite aggressors began to put into practice their plan for the destruction of Czechoslovakia as a state entity.
When we turn to the material concerning the aggression against Poland, we find there many features in common with the crimes of the conspirators directed against Czechoslovakia.
THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Pokrovsky, I think it is only a mistake in the translation into English, but it is stated in our copy that the Defendant Neurath was Reich Protector for Czechoslovakia
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and Moravia from the 17th of March 1938. No doubt you said 1939. Did you?
COL. POKROVSKY: I am afraid that what I said was not quite correctly heard. I said from 17 March 1938 to 28 September 1941.
THE; PRESIDENT: It should have been 1939, should it not?
COL.POKROVSKY: Yes, if I am not mistaken, that would be correct.
I take the liberty of repeating that when studying the documents with regard to the aggression against Poland, we find there many features in common with the crimes which the conspirators committed against Czechoslovakia. I have in mind the systematic violation of treaties and solemn declarations, false assurances, the creation of Q paid Fifth Column organized on a military footing, and the sudden infliction of a treacherous blow. This can be proved by a whole series of documents. .
An official report of the Polish Government contains a detailed list of the treaties violated by the conspirators. We submit the document to the Tribunal under Exhibit Number USSR-93 (Document Number USSR-93). Inasmuch as we are concerned with the facts of common knowledge and of those already commented on in the opening statements of the prosecutor, I beg the Tribunal to take judicial notice of this part of the Polish report without further proof, namely of the first two articles of the Count "Crimes against Peace."
I wish to read into the record four lines from Paragraph 3 of this Count which begins' on Page 219 of your document book. This concerns the Polish-German declaration of 26 January 1934:
"Both governments are convinced that the relations between their respective countries will in this manner develop fruit fully and lead to the establishment of neighborly relationships which will contribute to the well-being not only of both their countries, but of the other peoples of Europe as well."
The Defendant Von Neurath signed this declaration on behalf of Germany.
I now deem it necessary to read into the record an excerpt from a declaration made by the Defendant Goering during his visit to Warsaw on 16 February 1937, which is contained in the report of the Polish Government. You will find this excerpt which I want to quote, on Page 220, Volume II, Part 1 of the document book. Goering made this declaration to the representatives of the Polish Government. I quote:
"On the German side, there is no desire whatever to deprive Poland of any part of her territory. Germany is completely reconciled to her present territorial status. Germany would
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not attack Poland and has no intention of seizing the Polish Corridor. We do not want the Corridor. I say sincerely and categorically that we do not need the Corridor. Just as Germany trusts and believes that Poland has no intention of seizing Eastern Prussia and the remaining part of Silesia, so can Poland believe that Germany has no Intention of depriving her of any rights and possessions."
I think that Paragraph 6 of the Polish official report also deserves to be read in full. This paragraph is on Page 220 of your document book-Point 6:
"On 5 November 1937 the Polish and German Governments issued identical declarations concerning the treatment of minorities. The declaration concludes with the following passage:
" 'The above principles should in no way affect the duties of the minorities of complete loyalty to the state to which they belong. They have been inspired by a desire to secure for the minorities equitable conditions of life and harmonious collaboration with the nationals of the state in which they live-a state of affairs which will contribute to the progressive strengthening of the friendly and good-neighborly relations between Poland and Germany.' "
On 2 September 1939 Polish antiaircraft units brought down a German aircraft near Posen. A secret order issued by the Wehrmacht was found on the pilots. It contained, among others, the following sentence-this quotation you will find on Page 224, Volume I, Part 2 of the document book: "Reservists of German race should attempt to avoid being mobilized in the Polish Army and should join the German Army."
Then follows the detailed enumeration of insignia by which all people "who assist the German Army" would be recomputed. The order states that they will be supplied with-I quote one paragraph as it is stated in the original Polish report on the same page, that is 224: "2. For weapons-pistols of type Numbers 14 and 34 and also, in certain cases, with grenades of the Czech type." It is quite obvious that the latter was done for the purpose of provocation. The order bore the signature of "Major Reiss."
Inasmuch as this fact is ascertained in the manner provided for by Article 21 of the Charter, I request you to accept the fact stated by me as evidence.
I wish to submit to the Tribunal one more excerpt from Exhibit Number USSR-93. The part quoted is on Page 7, Paragraph 23 and it bears the customary red pencil mark used in our work for convenience. You will find that quotation on Page 223, Volume I, Part 2 of the document book:
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"Evidence gathered by the Polish Army in the course of the campaign of September 1939 indicates the following:
"a) As regards the diversionist activities in southwestern Poland, those activities were organized beforehand and were only carried out by agents dropped by parachutes. German espionage was organized by special emissaries posing as travelling teachers who trained spies and diversionists. Every year a number of young Germans would leave every German colony to proceed to the Reich. There they received special training, and upon their return to Poland, did penance. They contacted the local authorities, told them about cruelties of the Nazi and expressed their joy at having returned to their 'dear homeland.' But these same Germans retained constant contact with their agents in Germany and supplied them with information either by mail or through the travelling teachers.
"b) Besides the agents who were recruited among the young
people and appointed to collaborate with the German section of the population, there also existed a group of leaders and instructors, consisting of officers who were supplied with regular passports and who came to Poland long before the outbreak of hostilities."
Thanks to evidence discovered in the course of investigation, the Polish Government has ascertained that the main diversionist nucleus consisted of Hitler Youth groups known as the Hitler Jugend. The Defendant Schirach was, as we know, the leader of this
In Paragraph 21 of our Exhibit USSR-93, we find information on this subject, which deserves to be read into the record. Volume I, Part 2, Page 223.
Here are the details relating to the organization of the system of diversionist activities:
"a) The agents were recruited mainly from among the groups of young people known as the Hitler Jugend, and also among men and women, mainly of German nationality, who were recruited in Poland.
"b) Special courses, lasting from 2 weeks to 3 months, were organized for these agents on Reich territory.
"c) The members of these courses were split up into two categories. The first consisted of individuals possessing a thorough knowledge of the Polish language who were entrusted with special missions to be carried out in the rear of the Polish Army. The second category consisted of individuals who were to mingle with the crowds of Poles fleeing from the war and the air-raids.
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"d) Shortly before the war the students went through an additional course of instruction in special camps where they were assigned to 'districts for diversionist activities.' "
And now I shall turn to the documents, demonstrating the falsehood and hypocrisy of other declarations made by the Hitlerite conspirators on international questions concerning Poland. For this purpose, I shall quote Paragraphs 7, 8, and 9 of the section entitled "Crimes against Peace," again our Exhibit Number USSR-93. These would be the last paragraphs on Page 4 and the top of Page 5 of the Russian text: In your document book these quotations are marked on Page 220 of Volume I, Part 2, and on Page 221. I shall announce it when I pass on to Page 221.
"Paragraph 7: On 5 November 1937 the then Polish Ambassador was received by Hitler in the presence of the Defendant Von Neurath. On this occasion Hitler declared:
"'There will be no changes in the legal and political status of Danzig. The rights of the Polish population in Danzig will be respected. The rights of Poland in Danzig will not be violated.'
"Twice on this occasion, Hitler repeated with pathos, 'Danzig ist mit Polen verbunden (Danzig is bound to Poland).'
"Paragraph 8: The first hints of the changes in the status of Danzig were made by the Defendant Ribbentrop on 25 October 1938. He hinted at the incorporation of Danzig in the Reich in exchange for an extension of the German-Polish pact for 25 years and a guarantee of the German-Polish frontiers. Poland was to keep the Danzig railroads and to retain economic facilities in return for her assent to the building of an exterritorial Autobahn and a railroad through Pomerania.
"This proposal was rejected.
"Paragraph 9"-this is Page221,VolumeI, Part2 of the document book.-"Later on, during his visit to Warsaw, the Defendant Ribbentrop assured the Polish Government that there would be no fait accompli on the territory of the Free City-25-27 January 1939."
It is known that during the last months preceding 1 September 1939 concentrations of German mobilized military forces were carried out. Border clashes then took place. I think that the cause of these clashes will become quite obvious after I have read into the record the notes on Fall Grun, Document Number 388-PS, signed by Jodl.
On 15 April 1939 the late President of the United States of America, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, made an appeal to the world and to the leaders of Germany and Poland with a view to preventing further complications in Europe.
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On 28 April and 5 May 1939 the Polish Government proposed to the Government of Hitler Germany a practical solution for the problem of the Free City of Danzig.
On 23 August 1939 the King of Belgium addressed to the world a radio appeal for peace.
On 24 August 1939 the President of the United States of America appealed once again to the leaders of the Reich and Poland.
The Polish Ambassador in Berlin, acting on the advice of the British Ambassador in Warsaw, had a conference with Ribbentrop on 31 August.
I should like to quote two paragraphs, 18 and 19, of Exhibit Number USSR-93, marked with red pencil on Page 6 of the Russian original; in your document book they are found on Page 222, Volume I, Part 2:
"18. The German note stating the conditions for the settlement of the conflict with Poland was broadcast over the German radio on 31 August 1939, at 9 p. m. This note, however, was not handed to the Polish Ambassador until the evening of 1 September 1939. This was a few hours after German Armed Forces, both from the air and the land, were in the process of seizing Polish territory, in the early hours of 1 September 1939.
"19. In this way Germany attacked Poland in violation of her international assurance, without a previous declaration of war and at a time when her actions had convinced the Polish Government that further negotiations between the two countries were pending, with a view to arriving at a peaceful settlement of this dispute."
I have at my disposal the original document concerning the Danzig question, found by the Red Army in the archives of the German Ministry for Foreign Affairs. I present it to the Tribunal as Exhibit Number USSR-185 (Document Number USSR-185), and I must inform you that acting upon a request formulated yesterday, we have added to the photostat copy already on our files, the original copy of this highly important historical document. It has now been placed at the disposal of the Tribunal.
On the first page you will see a telegram form, which proves that on 1 September 1939 at 5 a. m. a telegram was handed in at the telegraph office at Danzig; this telegram, registered as Number 0166, consisted of 202 words and was addressed to the Fuehrer and Reich Chancellor in Berlin. On the second page you will see the text of this telegram of 202 words, which bears the seal of the Gauleiter of the Nazi Party in Danzig. I take the liberty of reading to you these 202 words which form a part of the history of the fascist conspirators' Crimes against Peace:
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On 30 January 1934 Hitler made a speech in his capacity of Chancellor of the Reich. It concerned a number of problems, including relations with Poland. There is no need to quote it in detail. At present, only two or three sentences can be of interest to us. I quote excerpts from Document Number TC-70:
". . . It seems to me that we must show, by a concrete example, that disagreements, however indisputable, need not prevent the finding of a modus vivendi which would serve usefully the cause of peace as well as the welfare of both nations."
I shall now skip several paragraphs and quote one of the concluding sentences...
THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Pokrovsky, it is pointed out to me, and I intervene for the purpose of getting the record correct, that the document is dated not the 30th of January 1934, but 30 January 1943. Do you agree with this?
COL. POKROVSKY: In my report I see the date 30 January 1934.
THE PRESIDENT: That is right, yes.
COL. POKROVSKY: I shall continue the quotation which concludes Hitler's pronouncement:
"The German Government is resolved and prepared to develop its political and economic relations with Poland, in accordance with the present agreement, in such a way as to ensure that a period of useful co-operation may follow one of fruitless reticence.
"The Chancellor has here expressed his particular satisfaction with the clarification of relations between Danzig and Poland."
On 26 September 1938 Hitler again spoke of Poland in one of his usual speeches. I consider it essential to quote a short excerpt from this speech Document Number TC-29:
"The most difficult problem with which I was confronted was that of our relations with Poland. There was a danger that Poles and Germans would regard each other as hereditary enemies. I wanted to prevent it."
I do not consider it necessary to read the entire document, and I will therefore omit a few sentences.
"Precisely a year later it was possible to reach an agreement which, in the first place, definitely eliminated the danger of a conflict for a period of 10 years.
"We are all convinced that this agreement will lead to a lasting pacification. We realize that here are two peoples which have to exist side by side, and neither can eliminate the other.
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"A state with a 33 million population will always strive for an outlet to the sea.
"Because of that, a way for understanding had to be found. It has been found and will be more and more consolidated."
In absolute conformity with this official and, from beginning to end, deceitful speech of Hitler's, the Defendant Ribbentrop, speaking in Warsaw on 25 January 1939, stated-this quotation will be found in Document Number 2530-PS:
"It is a fundamental part of German foreign policy in accordance with the firm will of the Fuehrer of the German people that the friendly relations between Germany and Poland, based on the existing treaty, be strengthened progressively and deepened."
Omitting one paragraph of this document, which has already been read in court and submitted to the Tribunal as the Document Number 2530-PS, I wish to repeat only one sentence of it:
"Thus Poland and Germany can look forward to the future with complete confidence upon the solid basis of their mutual relations."
Need I remind the Tribunal that in the Document L-79 already presented, which is a record of the conference only May 1939 at Hitler's new Reich Chancellery, among the many other openly aggressive declarations and statements of policy by Hitler, this man uttered the following sentence:
"Thus, there is no question of sparing Poland, and the decision remains to attack Poland at the first opportunity. It is impossible to expect a repetition of the operation against Czechoslovakia. This time it will mean war."
It must be stated in all fairness that this war was a surprise for Poland only. The fascist conspirators had, for a long time, carefully prepared for it. I now turn to Document C-120, a considerable part of which has already been read into the record. I should like to submit several excerpts from this document concerning the conspiracy of the Hitlerites directed against Poland, excerpts which have not yet been read into the record. I should like to draw your attention to individual sentences, which naturally did not attract the attention of the counsel who offered this document in evidence because they deal with relatively small details. But now these sentences are decisive and are of primary importance. They are highly characteristic and essential to a correct evaluation of the material I am about to present.
In the Document Number C-120 (Exhibit Number GB-41), marked, "for commanding officers only; top secret; matter for Chief of Staff; only through officer; General Headquarters of the Armed
9 Feb. 46 Forces WFA 37/39 Chefs (WIa)" just preceding the text of the document the subject is indicated as follows:
"Subject: Instructions for the Armed Forces for 1939-1940. Directive concerning the uniform preparation of the Armed Forces for 1939-1940 is hereby restated."
This sentence clearly and definitely indicates that already previously, that is, before 3 April 1939, there existed some other directives on this very question. The following is said in Paragraph 3 of the document cited:
"Opinions of the three branches of the Armed Forces, as well as the data for the calendar schedule, will be submitted to the OKW on 1 May 1939."
Already by 1 May 1939 Germany had a revised, modernized, and detailed plan for an aggression against Poland. And Hitler, while playing the part of one insulted by Poland, waited only for a suitable moment to declare that he had no choice but to destroy the Polish State.
In one of the appendices to the document quoted-ibid also listed as Document Number C-120 (Exhibit Number GB-41) but was not read into the record-there is one feature of great importance.
The document is signed by Hitler and bears the date 11 April 1939.
It was prepared in five originals only. I offer in evidence a copy of the second original.
"Directive concerning the uniform preparation of the Armed Forces for 1939-1940.
"I will expound, at a later date, the future objectives of the Armed Forces as well as the preparations for war which follow therefrom.
"Until the directive becomes effective, the Armed Forces must be ready to accomplish the following tasks:
"I) Securing the frontiers of the German Reich and protection from sudden air offensives; II) Fall Weiss; III) Occupation of Danzig.
I will now read into the record the first paragraph of Appendix 3, entitled the "Occupation of Danzig."
"The surprise occupation of the Free City of Danzig may come into question-independently of Fall Weiss-in utilization of a favorable political condition."
I think that we can dispense with the reading of the remaining text of the document.
If it please the Tribunal, it is worthy of note that, according to German plans the occupation of Danzig was regarded either as an
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integral part of the aggression against Poland or, in case of a different political situation, as a completely independent operation, but in both cases it was planned well in advance.
The same set of documents, listed as Number C-120, includes a top-secret directive intended exclusively for commanding officers and Divas be transmitted through officers only. It is important to note that the subject of this document, which I submit to the Tribunal, is indicated as follows: Instructions concerning the uniform preparation for war of the Armed Forces for the years 1939-1940. Just as the previous ones, this document was not intended for a wide circle of readers. It was typed in seven originals only. The fascist conspirators were not very anxious to popularize their planned preparation for war.
And again, in the appendix to directive OKW 37/39, which I have already submitted to the Tribunal and which is entitled, "Special Orders for Fall Weiss," there is one very significant sentence. I shall read into the Record the penultimate subparagraph of Paragraph 2:
"In case of a public announcement of general mobilization (Mobplan) for the Armed Forces, the mobilization will automatically cover the entire civilian network, including war production. A public announcement, however, of mobilization should not be counted on, should military events be confined to Fall Weiss."
It seems highly significant to me that the fascist conspirators, though fully conscious of the fact that war was to begin, had planned the execution of their criminal intent without announcing any mobilization.
And finally, I should like to point out that in Keitel's order to the Armed Forces, Number 37/39, of 3 April 1939, issued in connection with Fall Weiss, the following directives by Hitler were made public:
"I. Operational plan Fall Weiss must be elaborated with a view to the fact that its execution must be possible at any time, as from 1 September 1939."
We know that the invasion of Poland was, in fact, started on 1 September 1939-in short, on the very first day on which the German Armed Forces had to be fully ready for action.
Operational Order Number 1, 25039, of 21 August 1939, issued to the Command of Naval Group OST, on board the battleship Schleswig Holstein, stated as follows-this document has already been submitted to the Tribunal as a German photostatic copy:
"I. General situation. a) Political: All the armed forces must be defeated by means of a lightning thrust, to enable the
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creation in the East of a situation favorable for the defense of the Reich. The Free City of Danzig will be declared a Reich city."
It is worth while to bear this sentence in mind when speaking of the "free expression of will by the Danzig population," which allegedly aspired to become part of the Reich. It must not be forgotten that this free expression of will had been foreseen by the above operational Order Number 1, to the very day.
To conclude, I consider it essential to read into the record, almost in full, a rather long but exceptionally important document. I have in mind a note by the Defendant Bormann of 2 October 1940, referring to a conversation about Poland. This conversation was held after a dinner which took place in Hitler's apartment. You will find this note on Page 311, Volume I, Part 2 of the document book:
"Secret; Berlin, 2 October 1940; note.
"On 2 October 1940, after dinner at the Fuehrer's apartment, a conversation arose on the nature of the Government General, the treatment of the Poles and the incorporation, already approved by the Fuehrer, of the Districts of Piotrokow and Tomassov into the Warthegau.
"The conversation began when the Reich Minister, Or. Frank, informed the Fuehrer that the activities in the Government General could be termed very successful. The Jews in Warsaw and other cities had been locked up in the ghetto; Krakow would very shortly be cleared of them."
I now consider it possible to omit a few paragraphs.
"The Fuehrer further emphasized that the Poles, in direct contrast to our German workmen, are specially born for 1QW labor; we must give every possibility of advancement to our German workers; as to the PoleE~there can be no question of improvement for them. On the contrary, it is necessary to keep the standard of life low in Poland and it must not be permitted to rise.
"The Government General must, under no condition whatsoever, be an isolated and uniform economic region; it must not produce independently, even in part, any manufactured goods necessary for its subsistence; the Government General should be used by us merely as a source of unskilled labor (in industries such as brick manufacturing, road construction, et cetera). One cannot change the nature of a Slav, as the Fuehrer has already emphasized. While as a rule our German workers are by nature assiduous and diligent, the Poles are lazy and it is necessary to use compulsion to make them work.
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"However, there is no reason to expect that the Government General will become an independent economic region, as there are no mineral resources, and even should such be available the Poles are not capable of utilizing them.
"The Fuehrer has explained that the Reich needs large estates to provide food for our large cities; these large estates, as well as other agricultural enterprises, are in need of labor, and cheap labor in particular, for the cultivation of the soil and for harvesting. As soon as the harvest time is over, the laborers can go back to Poland because should they be employed in agriculture the whole year round they themselves would use up an important part of the crops. The best solution would thus be to import from Poland temporary laborers for the duration of the sowing and for the harvesting. Our industrial districts are overpopulated, while at the same time there is a lack of manpower in agriculture. That is where we can make use of the Polish laborers. For this reason, it would be quite right to have a surplus of manpower in the Government General, so that every year the laborers needed by the Reich' could be procured from there. It is indispensable to bear in mind that the Polish gentry must cease to exist; however cruel this may sound, wherever they are, they must be exterminated.
"There must, of course, be no sexual intercourse with Poles. It would consequently be a correct procedure if Polish harvesters, both men and women, came together to the Reich. Whatever the mutual relationships were in their camps would not be a matter of our concern-no zealous Protestant should poke his nose into these affairs.
"The Fuehrer stressed once more that there should be one master only for the Poles-the German; two masters, side by side, cannot and must not exist; therefore, all representatives of the Polish intelligentsia are to be exterminated. This sounds cruel, but such is the law of life.
"The Government General represents a Polish reserve of manpower-a vast Polish labor camp. The Poles will also benefit from this, as we look after their health and see to it that they do not starve, et cetera, but they must never be raised to a higher level, for they will then become anarchists and Communists. It will therefore be proper for the Poles to remain Roman Catholics; Polish priests will receive food from us and will, for that very reason, direct their little sheep along the path we favor. The priests will be paid by us and will, in return, preach what we wish them to preach. If any priest acts differently, we shall make short work of
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him. The task of the priest is to keep the Poles quiet, stupid, and dull-witted. This is entirely in our interests. Should the Poles rise to a higher level of development, they will cease to be that manpower of which we are in need. In other respects it will suffice for a Pole to possess a small holding in the Government General-a large farm is not at all necessary; he will have to earn the money he requires in Germany. It is precisely this cheap labor we need; every German and every German worker will benefit by this cheap labor.
"A strict German administration must exist in the Government General to keep order in the labor reservations. These reservations mean for us the maintenance of agriculture, particularly of our large estates, and they are, besides, a source of supply of labor."
I see no necessity to read into the record the exchange of views between those present, although it is mentioned in the document, and I shall go on directly to Hitler's final statements:
"To sum up, the Fuehrer wants to state once more:
"1. The lowest German workman and the lowest German peasant must always stand economically 10 percent above any Pole."
I omit the second paragraph and pass to the third which is of great interest:
"3. I do not wish"-the Fuehrer stressed-"that a German workman should, as a rule work more than 8 hours when we return to normal conditions; if a Pole, however, works 14 hours, he is still, in spite of that, to earn less than a German workman.
"4. The ideal picture is this: A Pole must possess a small holding in the Government General which will, to a certain extent, provide him and his family with food. The money required by him for clothes, supplementary foods, et cetera, et cetera, he must earn by working in Germany. The Government General must become a center for supplying seasonal unskilled labor, particularly agricultural laborers. The existence of these workmen will be fully guaranteed, because they will always be used as cheap labor."
This document deals with the question of Hitler's attitude towards Poland and the Polish people with such exhaustive clarity that it calls for no further comment.
I wish only to draw Your Honors' attention to three points.
Firstly, Hitler definitely states and develops in detail the idea that in the new fascist order in Europe the Polish people and the
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Polish State must be nothing but a Polish labor camp for fascist Germany.
Secondly, Hitler is convinced that the Poles will benefit from such a state of affairs, since the fascist conspirators intend to care for the health and adequate nourishment of the Poles whom they have reduced to slavery. I beg Your Honors to consider the fact that by "adequate nourishment" Hitler understands a state of affairs according to which every Pole should be maintained at an economic level considerably below that of the most wretched German. By "care" he means that the standard of living in Poland should be low and that it should not improve, so that no Pole be engaged otherwise than in heavy unskilled labor, 14 hours a day.
Finally, Hitler sets the task for the extermination of the entire intelligentsia, stating arrogantly that there should exist only one master for the Poles-the German.
In the course of further presentation of documents to the Tribunal we shall prove that Hitler and his followers, in the persons of the participants in the fascist conspiracy, strove to exterminate the Polish people and to reduce the standard of living of the Poles to the most pitiable and beggarly level. Their very existence depended solely on the fact that it assured cheap manpower for the fascist masters.
THE PRESIDENT: Would that be a convenient time to break off?
[The Tribunal adjourned until 11 February 1946 at 1000 hours.]
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